Când ești gravidă, A MÂNCA PENTRU DOI nu înseamnă de 2 ori mai mult (cantitativ), ci de 2 ori mai BINE (calitativ).

Nevoile calorice ale femeilor însărcinate cresc cu numai 15% față de rația normală, ceea ce corespunde unui surplus de 270 cal/zi, raportat la o dietă medie de 1800 cal/zi. Deoarece câștigul ponderal nu se face constant pe perioada sarcinii, este recomandat ca aportul caloric să fie suplimentat cu 300 cal/zi doar pe perioada trimestrului al doilea și cu 400 cal/zi în ultimul trimestru.

1 kg greutate corporală înseamnă 7000 calorii, iar în sarcină nevoile energetice sunt de aproximativ 80.000 calorii (corespunzător celor 12-13 kg câștigate). În medie, asta înseamnă 280 cal/zi în plus pe durata celor 280 de zile.

Cura de slăbire este nerecomandată în timpul sarcinii, inclusiv femeile supraponderale au nevoie de un aport minim de 1500 cal/zi pentru a permite dezvoltarea normală a fătului.

Aportul alimentar al gravidei crește global, însă având în vedere că anumiți nutrienți sunt necesari în cantități foarte mari (calciu, fier, vitamine), alegerea alimentelor trebuie făcută cu grijă astfel încât absorbția acestora să fie maximă, iar pierderile minime.

1. Carbohidrații

Aportul de glucide este esențial pentru a hrăni creierul fătului dar și ca suport energetic pentru mamă, astfel încât proteinele, atât de necesare creșterii embrionului, pot fi economisite, nu folosite drept sursă de energie. Alegeți glucidele lente (cereale integrale, legume, verdețuri, fructe) deoarece sunt bogate în fibre, vitamine și minerale și nu îngrașă.

2. Proteinele

În sarcină crește necesarul de proteine cu 25 g/zi, însă alimentația curentă este de obicei bogată, chiar foarte bogată în proteine, așa că nu este nevoie de o suplimentare specială a aportului.

Cele mai bune surse de proteine sunt carnea slabă, puiul, peștele, ouăle, alimente care asigură inclusiv un aport optim de fier, vitamine din grupul B și oligoelemente. Proteine de bună calitate găsim și în brânză, cereale, fasole boabe, mazăre, porumb, linte, soia.

Vegetarienele trebuie să consulte un nutriționist pentru planificarea unui regim alimentar

adecvat din punct de vedere al aportului proteic, bazat pe combinarea cerealelor cu leguminoase, soia și fructe oleaginoase astfel încât să fie acoperit tot spectrul de aminoacizi esențiali.

3. Lipidele

Acizii grași sunt indispensabili pentru formarea sistemului nervos și a substanței cerebrale la embrion, creierul fiind compus în cea mai mare parte din material lipidic. Lanțurile lungi de acizi grași esențiali omega-3 și omega-6 nu pot fi sintetizate în organism și de aceea trebuie aduse prin alimentație: uleiuri vegetale (de floarea-soarelui, măsline), pește gras (sardine, ton, somon), semințe oleaginoase, avocado, soia și derivatele ei.

4. Vitaminele

Vitaminele implicate în multiplicarea celulară (acidul folic și vitamina B12) sunt necesare în cantități mari și în sarcină. Se sintetizează celule fetale noi, iar volumul sângelui matern crește, prin urmare este nevoie de mai multe hematii și implicit de mai multe vitamine din grupul B.

Acestea previn malformațiile congenitale ale creierului și spina bifida. Aportul zilnic obișnuit, de 300 micrograme folați, va fi crescut la 400 μg/zi în sarcină și alăptare.

Nevoia de acid folic este deosebit de mare în primele 4-6 săptămâni de sarcină (când se formează sistemul nervos central al embrionului), prin urmare femeile ar trebui să ia suplimente de folați din luna premergătoare fecundării. Majoritatea realizează că sunt gravide în jurul săptămânii a 6-a de la ultima menstruație, adică atunci când tubul neural al embrionului s-a închis deja și lucrurile nu mai pot fi influențate prin suplimente nutritive.

Atenție! Femeile care au folosit contraceptive orale pornesc frecvent în sarcină cu un deficit de acid folic.

Sursele alimentare de folați sunt legumele (spanac, sparanghel, sfeclă, avocado, linte, mazăre, fasole boabe), și cerealele îmbogățite cu acid folic (cereale de mic dejun, paste făinoase, orez, pâine).

Pe lângă aportul alimentar, medicii recomandă și suplimente de acid folic în doze care pot varia între 400-800 μg/zi.

5. Mineralele

Calciul

O femeie însărcinată are nevoie de 1 g calciu/zi în timpul celui de-al 3-lea trimestru, adică cu 100 mg (10%) mai mult decât de obicei, pentru formarea oaselor și dinților viitorului copil.

În primele săptămâni de sarcină absorbția intestinală a calciului se dublează, acesta fiind depozitat în oasele mamei. Mai târziu, când oasele fătului încep să se calcifice, rezervele materne de calciu sunt mobilizate, iar în ultimele săptămâni de sarcină există un schimb de la mamă la făt de peste 300 mg calciu/zi prin intermediul placentei.

Multe dintre femei au un aport insuficient de calciu, de aceea încă înainte de a fi gravide ar trebui să consume mai multe produse lactate (lapte, iaurt, brânză) din care calciul se absoarbe cel mai bine datorită asocierii naturale cu vitamina D. Cantități mai reduse de calciu se găsesc și în apele minerale, conservele de pește (mâncate cu tot cu oase), citrice, legume cu frunze verzi (spanac, varză, broccoli).

Suplimentele de calciu, dacă sunt prescrise de medic, se iau la masă (pentru a le crește absorbția) și nu trebuie să depășească 600 mg/zi.

 alimentatia gravidei

*300 mg calciu reprezintă 30% din doza zilnică

Fierul

Nevoile zilnice de fier se dublează în sarcină trecând de la 16 la 30 mg. Acest lucru se explică prin dublarea volumului sângelui la gravide, dar mai ales prin formarea rezervelor de fier de care nou-născutul are nevoie pentru primele 3-6 luni de viață.

Chiar dacă organismul unei gravide încearcă să economisească fierul prin dispariția menstruațiilor și creșterea absorbției intestinale, este nevoie de o suplimentare a aportului alimentar cu 30 mg/zi în al 2-lea și al 3-lea trimestru de sarcină. Majoritatea femeilor au rezerve ferice slabe și riscă apariția anemiei feriprive. Ca urmare, doza suplimentelor de fier va fi crescută la 60-120 mg/zi, dacă hemoglobina și hematocritul din sângele matern sunt micșorate. Suplimentele de fier se iau între mese, cu alte lichide decât lapte, cafea sau ceai deoarece acestea afectează negativ absorbția.

Un regim alimentar echilibrat aduce în medie 12-15 mg fier/zi provenit din: carne roșie, pește, carne albă, ouă, pâine, cereale integrale, leguminoase, verdețuri.

Fierul hemic, de origine animală, este mult mai ușor de folosit decât fierul non-hemic din legume, iar absorbția e intensificată de prezența vitaminei C.

 

 

*Material extras din cartea “Sănătatea are gust”, Dr. Mihaela Bilic, pag. 48-50

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