Adolescența este o etapă de maturizare a corpului, dar și a minții, odată cu creșterea fizică producându-se o evoluție rapidă intelectuală și emoțională. Pe baza dezvoltării cognitive și emoționale au fost descrise 3 stadii ale adolescenței, care necesită abordări diferite din punct de vedere al educației și sfaturilor legate de nutriție.

adolescenti _ foto _21. adolescența timpurie presupune:

  • preocupare pentru imaginea corporală
  • încredere și respect față de adulți
  • anxietate legată de relațiile de prietenie
  • atitudine ambivalentă față de independență

În acest stadiu adolescenții vor să facă sau să încerce orice lucru care ar putea să-i ajute să arate mai bine sau să le îmbunătățească forma fizică și performanțele. Ei vor rezultate imediate, deci sfaturile legate de alimentație trebuie să fie îndreptate spre obiective cu termen scurt.

2. adolescența de mijloc presupune:

  • încredere crescută în prieteni și colegi
  • ignorarea adulților
  • independență (cea mai importantă)
  • dezvoltare cognitivă crescută

Adolescentul va hotărî singur ce mănâncă, își va asculta mai mult prietenii decât părinții, iar dorința de independență poate duce la respingerea temporară a obiceiurilor alimentare din familie. Sfaturile trebuie îndreptate asupra alegerii corecte a produselor alimentare, mai ales pentru situația frecventă în care masa este luată departe de casă.

3. adolescența târzie aduce:

  • imagine corporală stabilă
  • gânduri și planuri de viitor
  • creșterea independenței
  • clarificarea propriilor valori
  • apariția relațiilor intime

În această etapă adolescenții se gândesc la viitor și sunt interesați de tot ceea ce ține de sănătate, prin urmare educația nutrițională poate avea obiective pe termen lung. Chiar dacă în final tot ei decid, sunt deschiși pentru informații, însă au nevoie de explicații și argumente pentru a accepta orice idee nouă.

Nevoia de independență face ca tinerii să se expună la riscuri, iar căutarea propriei identități presupune nenumărate încercări, dar și greșeli.

  • Semne vizibile: folosirea drogurilor și alcoolului, fumatul, lipsa de la ore, teribilismul la volan.
  • Semne invizibile, tăcute: episoade de „îndopare“ cu mâncare, cure de slăbire repetate, pierderea încrederii în propria persoană, tulburări emoționale, gânduri de suicid.

Dorința obsesivă de a-și controla sau schimba proporțiile corpului crește riscul apariției tulburărilor de comportament alimentar (anorexie, bulimie), în special la fete. Teama de a nu se îngrășa le expune pe adolescente unor cure de slăbire drastice, făcute după ureche sau citite în reviste. Pe lângă faptul că sunt nesănătoase și duc la carența de substanțe nutritive, dietele extreme predispun la reîngrășare, și pe termen lung, chiar la apariția obezității.

 

*Material extras din cartea “Sănătatea are gust”, Dr. Mihaela Bilic, pag. 75-76

 

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