Alimentația nou-născutului are un rol fundamental în creșterea și dezvoltarea lui corespunzătoare, obiectivul nefiind să crească mult, ci să crească bine.

În primul an de viață se pun bazele unei nutriții sănătoase, care să asigure o greutate adecvată copilului și să prevină mai târziu apariția obezității.

În primele luni bebelușul crește cu 1 g/oră (24-25 g/zi), ceea ce face ca la vârsta de 5 luni greutatea de la naștere să fie dublă, iar până la vârsta de un an să fie triplă.

La naștere copilul măsoară de obicei 50-52 cm, iar la un an 73-76 cm, ceea ce reprezintă cel mai spectaculos episod de creștere în înălțime (cu aproape 50%) din întreaga viață,

depășindu-l și pe cel din perioada de pubertate. În primele 12 luni de existență conținutul de proteine al organismului se multiplică de 4 ori, iar cel de minerale (în special calciu) de 5 ori.

Nevoile nutriționale ale sugarului

nou _ nascuti _ foto _ 2În cazul în care comparăm nevoile unui nou-născut de 5 luni cu cele ale unui adult (pe unitate de greutate corporală) vom constata că neecesarul de proteine este de 1,5 ori mai mare, cel de calciu de 2 ori mai mare, iar vitamina D este necesară într-o cantitate de 10 ori mai mare.

Un sugar consumă de aproape 3 ori mai multe calorii (100 cal/kg corp/zi) față de un adult (maxim 40 cal/kg corp/zi), are pulsul și respirația mult mai accelerate iar nevoile hidrice sunt de 3-4 ori mai mari.

După vârsta de 6 luni rata de creștere a copilului începe să scadă însă nevoile energetice rămân în continuare crescute, deoarece caloriile „economisite“ din încetinirea dezvoltării corporale vor fi cheltuite prin activitatea fizică accentuată.

La naștere copilul primește obligatoriu o doză unică de vitamina K pentru prevenirea hemoragiilor, deoarece în primele luni de viață tubul digestiv este steril, deci lipsit de bacteriile responsabile de sinteza vitaminei K.

 

*Material extras din cartea “Sănătatea are gust”, Dr. Mihaela Bilic, pag. 56-56

43 Responses to Pentru nou-născuți
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